Ugo Paliotto


Singing is Freedom!




To vocalize properly you need the following requirements:
1) Attach the sounds (if sound emission is not done promptly, it becomes guttural).
2) Switch from one to another voice registry, bringing them together so that this step be insensitive.
3) Make all the ornaments of singing with grace, lightness and precision.
The promptness emission is the art of the fall right the rise to flight on the wave that passes: one moment of time is the right one; if not it captures, the sound will be guttural, nasal, dental, etc., but not transcendental.
One of the most frequent incorrect application of the energy in singing, consists of increasing the amount of   the voice rising to acute rather than letting the voice resonates alone.

This creates a pushed or shouted singing, which is a kind of constant acceleration, having the handbrake on. The technique of belcanto consists in find out how to not "put the brake", which prevents the vocal cords to naturally increase their vibrations in high notes, without being subjected to tension and stress.


The center sounds are produced by directing the breath against the top teeth; the head sounds are obtained by directing the breath entirely to the frontal sinuses.


The best sound is obtained:
1) By flattening the tongue in her entire length.
2) slightly lifting the soft palate.
3) Moving away the pilasters from the base to the top so the opening makes visible the larynx and pharynx drives the soundtrack to the front of the palate.
Garcia supports the vertical opening of the mouth through lowering of the jaw (required to find the space in the acute area, given by the dark timber), without causingablurring ofbrilliance. In this way, the horizontal axis of the smile, which arouses the resonances of the oral brilliance, adds and harmonizes with the vertical axis of yawning, which stimulates the roundness pharyngeal resonances and softness dark.
Also he is the supporter of the sensation of sound in the mouth, perceived by the singer when is tuned with the horizontal axis of brilliance.

Any attempt tomake the sound can only affect the raw material of the singing voice.

Articulation instead mysteriously helps the emission, though it is not obstructed by any tension.



"If you open your mouth in its wide you will have a common sound; but if you open it too much in its length, you will have a guttural and deaf sound. Be first of all natural; open your mouth to smile without affectation and timbre of your voice will be round and resonant."

"Tongue must be smoothed out. If it swollen the base, sound emission becomes doubtful, deaf or nasal; then if it rises towards the end the palate, voice, rejected toward the throat, turns dark and becomes guttural; Finally, if you lift in the middle, the sound is exposed to crack and produce a splint, or become strangled and mewling."

The A vowel is not conceived as ideal conformation and fixing of the cavity resonance, but as an example of natural opening of the mouth that facilitates the perception of mouth full of sound. it is the sign that you have created the free acoustic resonance.
The O is the vowel that evokes a sense of vertical position and depth, located at the pharyngeal level.
If A is the day and the sun, the U is its opposite, the night, the dream state, the unfathomable depth.

The Italian vowel I, being the brightest of vowels, can be used to give brilliance to other vowels. Switch from a ringing vowel in a dull vowel on the same note is an effective way of improving the lackluster vowel. The use of it as a way to illuminate the other vowels will be the preferred way of great singers like Beniamino Gigli, Carlo Bergonzi and Alfredo Kraus.
The method of tour the vowels on the same note is applied from Delle Sedie.
He also claims that the first note of the arpeggio shall be attached with the position of the throat necessary for higher sound.

The right sound pitch naturally appears if you meet the following conditions:
1) The attack of the sound, pure and gentle.
2) The use of soft respiratory muscle.
3) The dynamics of the mezza voce (attack the sound gently, not sunk).
4) The uniform metering of breath.

By violating any of these conditions, you cannot prove the miracle of the resonance free.
"It will be essential to work in order to relax conveniently the walls of the oral cavity, tongue is flattened and throat widens, ensure that the sound can vibrate within a wide resonator."

This sound, is not the swelled and heavy sound of postveristi thrusts, which is manifested by the attack of the sound from the bottom, but just the pure, gentle and clear of the bel canto tradition.



Singing on the act of inspiration: that is, start the sound when the muscles movement detente and expansion is not completely exhausted  and is about to reverse course for the expiratory contraction.
"The tongue holding flattened in all its length so that it remains as much space as possible in the mouth".

The pure sound, according to Lamperti, consists in a normal sound, the speaking voice.
The proper relationship between sound and breath is outlined as follows: on one side a small sound, and on the other "a large volume of air, which you have to adjust with art."
"It will be a very good thing make sure that the voice is emitted in much less force to the amount of breath, it will make singing more natural, more connected, and will ensure that the artist maintains a dose of breath even after the end of the sound."

"All notes, from bottom to top and back, are made with the same amount of air, not allowing that the breath collected in the lungs escapes more of need.
The voice will never be well supported, as long as the student proves not to make any effort in its issuance and his appearance is not calm and natural. "



The first important result of the Lehmann revolution is the disappearance of the throat and vocal cords from the horizon of the singer.
"For me throat plays no role; personally I only feel the breath flowing gently. A sound must never be forced and should never push your breath to the resonance cavity, and never hold its flow. "

Lehmann gives great importance to the nei syllable in teaching, having the advantage of inducing more height to the sound.

As vocal front, the e vowel can become i with imperceptible movement.
The vowels e and i are therefore closely linked to each other and help each other.
I vowel receives its power from e, while e owes its ease and its height to the i.

The push of breath and the rigidity of the diaphragm work against the upper vocal organs, which instead should be free, then all the pressures acting on them by the diaphragm are big mistakes that cause the voice loss.

"A mistake equally serious is when the students, instead of using the global cooperation of the muscles, abandon the sound completely, here that then sing formless, with the organs completely relaxed, which happens especially singing light. Leaving the diaphragm completely floppy by stiffening the upper parts, or holding your breath (which should flow gently), you get only the flickering of the voice and the loss of support. "

"You should never hold back the flow of the breath; you should never tighten the organs, but allow to perform their function with elasticity ".
If you try to directly control your breath, holding or pushing it, you’ll get the opposite effect, preventing the creation of the free resonance.

"When I sing an isolated note, I can give much more power, much more palatal resonance, than I would be possible if it were included in

a series of ascending notes. In this case you have to give to the lowest note a lot more head voice than would be required if it were an isolated note ".
Going up in the acute area I have the feeling of having on the palate, above and behind the nose, against the cavities of the head, a rubber ball that fill like a balloon with the incessant flow of the breath that flows behind the throat. As I go up, I can enlarge this ball and I raise the form. All of this allows me to perform easily and effortlessly. Also more acute is the sound and more the breath should be perceived

as vertical.

"Voices in predominately palatal resonance, are the most difficult to keep. It is unusual to find people ready to give up to the power sound in the center for the head voice. The pure head sound, not mixed with the palatal resonances, is weak. But the palatal resonance, without mixing with the head voice, makes sound very powerful up close, but that not "runs" in a large room. "



The muscle involvement at the diaphragmatic-abdominal level given by the support, is not the result of voluntary muscle forcing, but it is the external manifestation that the voice has found that magical balance point that cancels tensions.
"The natural functions of respiration, phonation, hearing, touch creates the physiological act of singing. Everything else is excess baggage. "

Another important distinction that Brown does is between two forms of energy, which act in singing: a gentle energy, light, which is connected to the calm action, and a thick muscular energy, associated with efforts, contractions and tensions. The first is typical of natural singing, the second is typical of the artificial singing.
"Do not ever move away the voice from its focal point, never push your breath on top, do not let the pronunciation abandons the lips."

The sound with mouth closed and breathing seem to hide a technical important secret for singing.
"The m is the original vibration, nothing else. Used properly, it is able to act as a unifying element of the voice, simply matching the registers and removing the attacks and shots. It is the result of a merger between breath and sound."
The sound with mouth closed, properly emitted, is one of the most important resources to see the upper part.

"At the same time we can say that you cannot push the voice in the high cavities. Any attempt to artificially put the sound in the "right place" obstructs the sound. It is the sound that has to find its position. "
Both for Lehmann and G.B. Lamperti the sound is located approximately on the palatal point.
In this definition we must add that the pronunciation should be "on the lips", otherwise "the voice will not be in focus."



Caruso, also in the dramatic roles never forced breath in an attempt to increase the power of the voice.
The need to dose the energy is, for Caruso, in a complete looseness muscles and a complete mental calmness, without it is impossible to control the voice.

Accepted that inspiration cannot be just abdominal because this would prevent the creation of the "ball of breath," Caruso emphasizes the importance of appoggio on this ball, which implies a downward movement and continuous contact with the ball, as precisely when you support it. Without that deep support breath sound is totally colorless, with no energy and no runs, in contrast to what happens with a light note, deeply supported.
Deep support does not mean implement voluntary muscle pushed while singing, neither from bottom to top neither from top to bottom, but

it means to establish and maintain a natural contact, created at the moment of the attack of the sound, with the elastic base of breath.

Even if Caruso is a supporter of the deep breathing (inhale a large amount of breath) Lehmann is not agree. Focus attention on the amount of air to inhale leads to conceive inspiration not as a passive act (as it should be) but active, causing muscle rigidity, and preventing the natural creation of the ball or pillow breath, to lean over.
Lauri Volpi says that "every note is the base of the next note."

Caruso expresses the same idea so:
"Purity and ease emission of high notes depend very much on the way in which the previous notes are sung. Starting from the central registry and going up to the high notes, must constantly maintain a balance, so that the highest note can benefit from the position and the opening throat of the first sound and therefore there is no more danger that throat is closed and high notes are tight. "

Gigli spoke of an attack "light and high" Lauri Volpi of a sound "on top of the breath."
Caruso speaks of a "pure attack".
According to Caruso, the perception of the position of sound, it should not be neither in the throat, neither in the chest, neither in the nose, but "above the soft palate."
Caruso confirms the importance of breathing recognized from the Italian ancient school. Any attempt to open the throat or turning up the palate directly and mechanically, turns into rigid muscle acts which are harmful to the singing.

One of the two conditions for a correct resonance of singing voice is the horizontal one that can be created with the vowel a and the smile, which must blend harmoniously with the vertical one, given by the expansion of the internal spaces, given by the natural deep breath (beginning of yawning). If missing the vertical axis the result will be the voice in the throat.

If you feel your throat or glottis at the moment of the attack of sound, the throat is closed or is not open properly, and the sound is wrong.
Caruso also says:

"by vocalizing with mouth closed, you must use vocal organs in the same way that you use to emit a sound correctly: there should be a full softness of the facial muscles, jaw and tongue, as when they are in a state of rest; lips should touch lightly. In this way the vibrations of the sound will not be hampered by the obstruction of muscles neither forced toward your nose by tensions; instead will resonate in the cavities and make notes round and beautiful. "

It is with this education of eases and naturalness that the voice gradually grows up and the singer acquires the balance that allows him to drive the sound with minimal movements, almost remaining motionless and doing nothing.
The impeccable articulation of Caruso was due to the flexibility of the tongue and lips, and the fact that he never tried to emphasize the pronunciation of consonants.

Tetrazzini highlights a new component of the correct inhalation, expansion of the dorsal part and not only the front of the air chamber, that gives rise to the sense of a circular breathing. The balance that is created is the presupposition that allows sounds to remain soft even in the acute area. Tetrazzini also claims that inhaling too much air is liable to stiffen the muscles, and hold air instead of let it flow freely, threatens to close the throat.

"From the moment the note begins, the breath must flow with it. It is a good idea to think, at the moment of the attack of the sound, to breathe gently. This applies especially to the acute area, for which you will have to pay particular attention to attack the sound on the breath and not pressing or pushing with your throat.

The breath pressure ensures the strength, and by inserting the note in the focal point of palate, ensures the height ".

"As much as the notes are high, the more you have to touch them gently to avoid screaming."
"The young singer tries to develop the high notes and make them resonate in his ears as big as the middle notes. Instead, the pure head sounds seem small and weak to the singer, and the temptation is to tap into full body of the lower sounds, but the head sound has that penetrating quality that makes it run in open spaces, which has not the throat sound, which may seem huge to the singer but in fact missing of resonance ".

The opening of the throat, the lowering of the larynx and relaxation of the facial muscles can be evoked by the idea of yawning and drinking.
"In singing mouth should always be slightly smile. This slight smile relaxes lips, allowing them to play freely with the tongue to form words. "

The tendency to make the voice bigger is identified by Pertile as the most serious danger, a direct result of the fear of having a weak voice. From here the maneuvers of many singers tended to broaden the throat, lowering the larynx, to raise rigidly the palate and press on the respiratory muscles.
The true sound expands and becomes big only if born small, pure and simple. Ignoring the distinction between a large sound and a big sound, the singer must always press notes, he will think he has made a big note, while it does not pass through the orchestra.

Giacomo Lauri Volpi emphasizes the image of the attitude at the beginning of yawning and lips a slight smile. Also says that, placed the first note, the others will follow "on the thread of the breath."
Once you enter into the sphere of pure sounds, essential, once you find the center of the resonance, everything becomes easier; the free articulation and pronunciation of words, to the overcoming of the steps of register, to the breath that connects the different sounds on the same stream of breath.



William Vennard, known teacher and scientific researcher, says that "we should not have throat when we sing." He also suggests to precede the attack of the sound from the release of a little breath.
"It consists to simulate a yawn and emit a sound gently. The student must imagine being seated comfortably and have just put the slippers."
The first exercises you do are based on the approach of yawning. When this concept is been assimilated, you start working on the focus. The sound is originally thin and maybe even unpleasant. Once you find the right position, all you have to do is give more space, in which the resonance can develop.

Seth Riggs is the promoter of the "speech-level singing."
The speech level singing goes back to about two thousand years ago (as attested by Julius Caesar, "if you sing, sing bad, if you say, you sing"), and is been proposed again in bel canto era with the famous saying "you sing like you speak" .
Riggs after acknowledging the need to perform some movements (relaxing the external muscles of the larynx, perform steps to register, do not raise the larynx, and so on), forbids others, such as deep breathing, the support and the open throat, which are just those required by traditional teaching, which he says to be inspired.

His approach is based on a localized control, do not lift the larynx. To invite a singer to not lift the larynx is contrary to the tradition of the bel canto school. According to the conception of Italian bel canto, the correct position of the larynx must be the indirect result of the ability of the singer, through a passive self control, to open and stretch the body (including the throat) in a natural way; which is only possible by implementing the natural deep breathing, as Francesco Lamperti did, when he invited to feel the cold air that crosses and opens the throat during inspiration.

Jerome Hines, lead singer at the Metropolitan in New York, collects interviews regarding vocal technique, made by great singers. From them emerges the connection of numerous technical indications with what we have defined the teaching of bel canto. Among the most explicit, he mentions the following:

Martina Arroyo: The deep breath, natural, opening the throat similar to yawn, face relaxed, without showing teeth. In the higher notes, more space in the throat.
Fiorenza Cossotto: The open throat gives rise to a feeling of beginning of yawn.
Going up throat widens, but in a relaxed way, and sounds should focus more.
Regine Crespin: The opening of the throat remembers the start of yawning. Breathe in thinking to expand like a balloon.

Nicolai Gedda: Breathing in as when you start to yawn, the larynx automatically goes down. Breathing in with mouth closed, feeling that all the cavities are open; in bel canto too much pronunciation of the consonants tends to ruin the voice. The consonant must be at the same level of the vowel; in this way the consonants help to produce a beautiful voice. For the passage to the head register is necessary emphasize even more the feeling of yawning. For acute is necessary more space, more high tip of sound.

Marilyn Horne: Breathing in, like yawning, the larynx lowers automatically. Mouth does not open too much when you sing, except in high notes. The space is essentially internal.
Cornell MacNeill: The diaphragm is overestimated as a way to sustain, and the amount of air that you usually use, is too much. We must think of the column of air and let the vocal cords to themselves, so they vibrate free. "Front and out" has nonsense. It should keep the sound on top of the column of air. You can not and you should not project anything. You can just let the sound go freely where he knows he has to go. You must maintain the general balance and control the single movements.

Luciano Pavarotti: In the passage register throat is open as in the beginning of yawning. The position should always be high, even singing low notes.
Paul Plishka: Vocalizing with mouth closed with the consonant n give the perception of the right position of the sound. Most of the problems in the high notes are due to an excess body of voice.

Rosa Ponselle: In order to correct the excess of brilliance I use the vowel u.
I use mu in the center of the voice and mo for high notes, keeping a slight smile. If you cannot make an u with a slight smile, then it is wrong.
In central registry speak simply, do not Grimacing, avoid creating a space too large. Going up there is a need of a larger space and the mouth opens more.

You are here: Home Singing lessons Mentions

Il nostro sito Web utilizza i cookie. Utilizzando il nostro sito e accettando le condizioni della presente informativa, si acconsente all'utilizzo dei cookie in conformità ai termini e alle condizioni dell’informativa stessa. Per saperne di più sui cookie, visualizza la Privacy.

Accetto i cookie da questo sito.